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Kassandra, Sithonia, Athos.
Three peninsulas; countless values

Chalkidiki is an area of special ecological value. Large parts are listed in the NATURA 2000 European Network of Protected Areas, while the imposing Mount Athos preserves its areas of unspoilt nature. 

Chalkidiki is the place where honey, oil and wine of the highest quality are produced; it is the rich fishing grounds with the crystal clear waters; the land that is home to a wealth of mineral resources.

Chalkidiki is the intangible cultural heritage and the various aspects of modern life: gastronomy and traditional recipes, customs and traditions of its people, festivals and artistic events, high-quality recreational services offered to its visitors.

Chalkidiki is the history that continues uninterrupted since the Paleolithic period. It is the ancient cities, its towers and castles, its temples and Byzantine monuments. It is Stagira, the birthplace of Aristotle and Mount Athos, the Holy Mountain, which emerged as a major monastic community and is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List, guarding treasures of faith and art.

12th – 11th c. BC First Greek colonization

Evidence of human settlement in coastal zones such as Mende and Torone • probably receiving colonists from southern Greece

8th – 7th c. BC Second Greek colonization

Citizens of Eretria and Chalkis establish colonies in Pallene and Sithonia, the most important of which are Mende, Aphytis, Sane, Skione and Torone. The Bottiaeans, expelled by the Macedonian king Perdiccas I, establish Olynthus. 655-650: Stagira, Akanthos and Sane of Acte are founded by colonists of Andros. 600 BC: Potidaea is founded by Corinthian colonists

483 – 480 BC Construction of the Canal of Xerxes
479 BC Destruction of Olynthus by the Persians
478 BC Foundation of the Early Delian League

Many cities of Chalkidiki become members

432 BC Foundation of the Chalcidian League

Confederacy of the cities of Chalkidiki under the leadership of Olynthus, thanks to which the city expands and gains significant power

432 – 404 BC Peloponnesian War

Peloponnesian War with the significant participation of cities of Chalkidiki: 429 BC Defeat of the Athenians at Spartolo. 424 BC Defection of cities of Chalkidiki and alliance with the Lacedaemonians. 421 BC Following the Peace of Nicias, many cities of Chalkidiki become autonomous with the obligation to pay tributes to the Athenians

393 BC The Chalcidian League establishes an alliance with Amyntas III, king of Macedonia
384 BC Birth of philosopher Aristotle in Stagira
349-348 BC Philip II invades Chalkidiki

Following the utter destruction of Olynthus in 348 BC, Chalkidiki is conquered and becomes part of the Macedonian kingdom

316 – 315 BC Foundation of Cassandrea by Cassander and Ouranoupolis by Alexander
280 BC Foundation of Antigoneia by Antigonus Gonatas
279 BC Gallic Invasion of Macedonia

Cassandreia declares its independence

168 BC Battle of Pydna

Defeat of the Macedonians and submission of Macedonia to the Romans

148 BC Macedonia becomes a Roman province
43 BC Establishment of the Roman colony of Cassandrea (Colonia Iulia Augusta Cassandrensis)
50 AD Apostle Paul passes through northern Chalkidiki heading to Thessaloniki
3rd c. AD Gothic raids and other barbarian invasions
6th c. AD Emperor Justinian I fortifies Cassandrea
6th – 9th c. AD Hunnic and Slavic raids
883 AD Emperor Basil I the Macedonian grants Mount Athos its first imperial privilege
9th – 10th c. BC Bulgarian and Arab raids in Chalkidiki
963 AD The Megisti Lavra Monastery is founded on Mount Athos by St. Athanasius with the support of Emperor Nicephorus Phokas
972 AD 1st Typikon of Mount Athos issued by Emperor John Tzimiskes, referred to as Tragos
1045 AD 2nd Typikon of Mount Athos issued by Emperor Constantine IX Monomachos
1307-1309 AD Catalan plundering raids
1406 AD 3rd Typikon of Mount Athos by Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos
1403 – 1408 AD Chalkidiki under the Kingdom of Thessaloniki
1430 AD Final conquest of Thessaloniki and Chalkidiki by the Ottomans
15th – 19th c. AD Restructuring of silver mines in Siderokapsa

A form of cooperative organization was developed known as the Federation of Mantemochoria

1783 AD Typikon of the Holy Mountain issued by the Ecumenical Patriarch Gabriel IV
March 25, 1821 Proclamation of Greek revolution against the Ottomans
May 17, 1821 Proclamation of the revolution in Chalkidiki by Emmanuel Pappas
January 13, 1822 Definitive end of the revolution with the surrender of Mount Athos

It was preceded by looting and destruction throughout Chalkidiki

February 3, 1830 London Protocol

Foundation of the Greek State

1912 – 1913 Balkan Wars
October 22, 1912 Liberation of Chalkidiki from the Ottoman rule
1913 Solemn Resolution of the Athonite community for the integration of Mount Athos into the Greek Territory and the preservation of the autonomous administration of the monasteries
1922 Arrival of refugees from Eastern Thrace and Asia Minor in Chalkidiki. Establishment of refugee settlements
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